National Transportation Safety Board
Aviation Accident Final Report

 

 

Location:

Kernville, CA

Accident Number:

WPR13LA145

Date & Time:

03/11/2013, 1501 PDT

Registration:

N427GE

Aircraft:

CIRRUS DESIGN CORP SR20

Aircraft Damage:

Substantial

Defining Event:

Runway excursion

Injuries:

1 Minor, 2 None

Flight Conducted Under:

Part 91: General Aviation - Personal

Analysis

The pilot reported that, while in the landing flare with the flaps configured full down, the airplane drifted right, and he then decided to execute a go-around. After he added power for the go-around, the left main wheel contacted the runway, and the airplane then veered left, continued off the left side of the runway, and impacted a ditch.

Flight data from the primary flight display showed that the airplane had a high engine rpm and a 9-degree left bank with a 17-degree nose-up pitch attitude and was at an airspeed of 56 knots during the attempted go-around. The Pilot’s Operating Handbook states that, during a go-around, the best angle-of-climb airspeed (between 81 and 83 knots indicated airspeed [KIAS]) should be set and maintained and that the flaps should then be retracted. It also states that, if the airplane is configured with full flaps in a 15-degree bank angle, it will stall between 55 and 57 KIAS. It is likely that the excessive pitch angle and low airspeed during the go-around attempt resulted in an aerodynamic stall.

 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
The pilot’s application of excessive pitch and his failure to achieve adequate airspeed during the go-around attempt, which resulted in an aerodynamic stall.

 

Findings

Aircraft

Pitch control - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Airspeed - Not attained/maintained (Cause)

Personnel issues

Aircraft control - Pilot (Cause)

Factual Information

On March 11, 2013, at 1501 Pacific daylight time, a Cirrus SR20, N427GE, veered off the left side of the runway and into a ditch at the Kern Valley Airport, Kernville, California. The airplane was registered to East Pole Aviation, and operated by Justice Aviation under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 91. The private pilot and two passengers sustained minor injuries, and the airplane was substantially damaged. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan had been filed. The flight originated at Bakersfield, California, about 1438.

The pilot stated that while in the landing flare with the flaps configured full down, the airplane drifted right so that the right main landing gear was no longer over the runway. The pilot decided to execute a go-around. After he added power for the go-around, the left main wheel contacted the runway; the airplane veered left, continued off the left side of the runway, impacted a ditch, and came to rest inverted. The pilot indicated in the NTSB Pilot/Operator Accident Report (Form 6120.1) that there were no mechanical malfunctions or failures prior to the accident.

The Avidyne Primary Flight Display (PFD) was removed from the airplane and sent to the NTSB Vehicle Recorders Laboratory for data download and review. The Avidyne PFD unit includes a solid state Air Data and Attitude Heading Reference System (ADAHRS) and displays aircraft parameter data including altitude, airspeed, attitude, vertical speed, and heading. The PFD unit has external pitot/static inputs for altitude, airspeed, and vertical speed information. The PFD has a data logging function, which is used by the manufacturer for maintenance and diagnostics. Maintenance and diagnostic recordings consists of system information, event data, and flight data. The data extracted from the PFD contained the accident flight and other flights on March 11, 2013.

The following data was extracted from the Avidyne PFD for the accident sequence of events.

At 1501:24, the data indicated that the airplane's roll was 7 degrees left, the pitch was 2 degrees nose down, and the airspeed was 69 knots.

At 1501:28, the data indicated that the airplane's roll was 3 degrees right, the pitch was 5 degrees nose up, and the airspeed was 66 knots.

At 1501:30, the data indicated that the propeller rpm was 1,350, the airplane's roll was 2 degrees left, the pitch was 2 degrees nose up, and the airspeed was 62 knots.

At 1501:30 and 1501:36, the propeller rpm was 1,350 and 2,400, respectively. During this time period, the pitch, roll, and airspeed were sampled at a higher frequency. As such, determining when power was applied relative to pitch increase is limited by the sampling rate differences. However, during this period the pitch increased from 2 degrees nose up to 12 degrees nose up, the roll increased to 9 degrees left, the airspeed decreased to 56 knots, and by 1501:32, the longitudinal acceleration began to increase. Also during this period, the magnetic heading changed  left from 351 degrees to 327 degrees.

At 1501:38, the pitch reached a maximum value of 17 degrees nose up when the airspeed was about 56 knots.

Between 1501:38 and 1501:41, the pitch decreased to 16 degrees nose down, and the aircraft rolled to 31 degrees right, before rolling back to the left through 20 degrees.

After 1501:41, the vertical acceleration increased to a full scale value of XYZ, the left roll angle increased to a full scale value of 180 degrees left, and the airspeed decreased to 0 knots.

The Cirrus SR20 Pilot Operating Handbook contains stall speeds for a gross weight of 3,000 pounds, flaps configuration, and angle of bank factors. The accident airplane configuration was flaps at 100% (full down), and for this configuration the stall speed at 15 degrees angle of bank is between 55-57 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS).

The Pilot Operating Handbook lists the following procedures for a Balked Landing/Go-Around.

1. Autopilot – Disengage

2. Power Lever – FULL FORWARD

3. Flaps – 50%

4. Airspeed – Best Angle of Climb (81-83 KIAS)

After clear of obstacles

5. Flaps – Up (0%)

 

History of Flight

Landing-aborted after touchdown

Runway excursion (Defining event)

 

 

Pilot Information

Certificate:

Commercial

Age:

54

Airplane Rating(s):

Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land

Seat Occupied:

Left

Other Aircraft Rating(s):

None

Restraint Used:

Seatbelt, Shoulder harness

Instrument Rating(s):

Airplane

Second Pilot Present:

No

Instructor Rating(s):

None

Toxicology Performed:

No

Medical Certification:

Class 2 With Waivers/Limitations

Last FAA Medical Exam:

04/16/2012

Occupational Pilot:

No

Last Flight Review or Equivalent:

07/30/2012

Flight Time:

1532 hours (Total, all aircraft), 34 hours (Total, this make and model), 1474 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 5 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

 

 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make:

CIRRUS DESIGN CORP

Registration:

N427GE

Model/Series:

SR20

Aircraft Category:

Airplane

Year of Manufacture:

 

Amateur Built:

No

Airworthiness Certificate:

Normal

Serial Number:

1984

Landing Gear Type:

Tricycle

Seats:

4

Date/Type of Last Inspection:

02/25/2013, 100 Hour

Certified Max Gross Wt.:

3050 lbs

Time Since Last Inspection:

37 Hours

Engines:

1 Reciprocating

Airframe Total Time:

1318 Hours as of last inspection

Engine Manufacturer:

CONT MOTOR

ELT:

Installed, activated, did not aid in locating accident

Engine Model/Series:

IO-360-ES

Registered Owner:

EAST POLE AVIATION LLC

Rated Power:

200 hp

Operator:

Justice Aviation

Operating Certificate(s) Held:

None

 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site:

Visual Conditions

Condition of Light:

Day

Observation Facility, Elevation:

KIKY, 2457 ft msl

Distance from Accident Site:

30 Nautical Miles

Observation Time:

1145 PST

Direction from Accident Site:

90°

Lowest Cloud Condition:

Clear

Visibility

20 Miles

Lowest Ceiling:

None

Visibility (RVR):

 

Wind Speed/Gusts:

2 knots /

Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:

/

Wind Direction:

Variable

Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:

/

Altimeter Setting:

30.24 inches Hg

Temperature/Dew Point:

16°C

Precipitation and Obscuration:

No Obscuration; No Precipitation

Departure Point:

Bakersfield, CA (KBFL)

Type of Flight Plan Filed:

None

Destination:

Kernville, CA (KL05)

Type of Clearance:

VFR Flight Following

Departure Time:

1438 PST

Type of Airspace:

Class E

 

Airport Information

Airport:

Kern Valley Airport (KL05)

Runway Surface Type:

Asphalt

Airport Elevation:

2614 ft

Runway Surface Condition:

Dry

Runway Used:

35

IFR Approach:

None

Runway Length/Width:

3500 ft / 50 ft

VFR Approach/Landing:

Straight-in

 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries:

1 Minor

Aircraft Damage:

Substantial

Passenger Injuries:

2 None

Aircraft Fire:

None

Ground Injuries:

N/A

Aircraft Explosion:

None

Total Injuries:

1 Minor, 2 None

Latitude, Longitude:

35.728056, -118.419722 (est)

 


 


Administrative Information

Investigator In Charge (IIC):

Van McKenny

Report Date:

10/21/2015

Additional Participating Persons:

Nick Cabiness; Federal Aviation Administratin; Fresno, CA

Brad Miller; Cirrus Aircraft; Duluth, MN

Publish Date:

10/21/2015

Investigation Docket:

http://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms/search/dockList.cfm?mKey=86400