National Transportation Safety Board
Aviation Accident Final Report

 

 

Location:

San Juan, PR

Accident Number:

ERA16LA323

Date & Time:

09/22/2016, 1820 AST

Registration:

YV1738

Aircraft:

LEARJET 25

Aircraft Damage:

Substantial

Defining Event:

Loss of control on ground

Injuries:

3 None

Flight Conducted Under:

Part 91: General Aviation - Business

Analysis

 

The airline transport pilot reported that rain was intensifying as the airplane approached the runway and that the runway appeared to be wet. After landing smoothly and while decelerating through 80-90 knots, the airplane hydroplaned and departed the left side of the runway. An 8-knot crosswind from the left prevailed. The left main landing gear collapsed, and the airplane came to rest in the grass about 180° from the runway heading, which resulted in structural damage to the left main gear well. Postaccident examination of the main landing gear tires revealed that three tires had no measurable tread, and the fourth tire had only 1.17 mm of tread. The tire manufacturer stated that tires should be removed if tread wear reached the base of any groove. White skid marks were found on the runway, indicative of a hydroplaning condition. Witnesses reported heavy rain and standing water on the runway at the time of the accident.

 

Probable Cause and Findings

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident to be:
 

The pilot's improper decision to land the airplane on a wet runway, in heavy rain, with tires worn beyond safe limits, which resulted in a hydroplaning condition and subsequent loss of directional control.

 

Findings

Aircraft

Tire casing - Not serviced/maintained (Cause)

Directional control - Attain/maintain not possible (Cause)

Personnel issues

Decision making/judgment - Pilot (Cause)

Environmental issues

Rain - Effect on operation

Wet surface - Effect on operation

Factual Information

 

On September 22, 2016, about 1820 Atlantic standard time (AST), a Learjet 25D, Venezuelan registration YV1738, was substantially damaged during a runway excursion while landing at Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport (TJIG), San Juan, Puerto Rico. The foreign-certificated pilot, co-pilot, and one passenger were not injured. The airplane was operated by WMG Techno-Logistic, C.A. under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 as a business flight. Day, visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time, and an instrument flight rules flight plan was filed. The flight originated from Punta Cana, Dominican Republic (MDPC) about 1750 AST.

The pilot reported that the runway appeared to be wet as they were cleared to land. There was light rain on the windshield, and the rain intensified as they approached the runway. After a smooth landing on runway 9, as the airplane decelerated through 80 to 90 knots, the airplane began to hydroplane, and departed the runway surface to the left, into the grass. As the airplane crossed the intersecting taxiway, the left main landing gear collapsed, the airplane completed a 180-degree turn, and came to rest in the grass. The crew and passenger egressed the airplane and were met by first responders. The pilot later reported that there were no mechanical anomalies or malfunctions that would have prevented normal operation of the airplane.

An inspector with the Federal Aviation Administration responded to the accident site and examined the wreckage. The left main landing gear actuator support beam was structurally damaged. The left wing tip fuel tank was scraped on the lower side. Rudder control continuity was confirmed.

Runway 9 was 5,539 feet long and 100 feet wide. The runway surface was noted as "asphalt, in good condition." The runway was not grooved. FAA inspectors observed tire skid marks from all three landing gear on the runway, leading to the resting position of the wreckage. The skid marks were white in color.

A subsequent examination of the main landing gear tires revealed that three of the four tires were worn to the point where no measurable tread remained. The number 4 (right, outboard) main tire measured 1.17mm tread remaining. The main landing gear tires installed at the time of the accident were approved by the airplane manufacturer.

The Goodyear aircraft tire maintenance manual stated, regarding treadwear, "Inspect treads visually and check remaining tread. Tires should be removed when tread has worn to the base of any groove at any spot, or up to 1/8 of the tire circumference."

The weather at TIG at 1820 included wind from 350 degrees at 8 knots, 2 statute miles visibility in thunderstorms, overcast ceiling at 2,000 feet, and altimeter 29.94 inches of mercury. A U.S. Customs agent reported that there was heavy rain at the time of the accident. The passenger on the airplane reported that there was 2 to 4 inches of water on the taxiway and runway and it was "raining profusely."

 

 

History of Flight

Landing-landing roll

Loss of control on ground (Defining event)

Runway excursion

Landing gear collapse

 

 

Pilot Information

Certificate:

Airline Transport; Commercial; Foreign

Age:

33, Male

Airplane Rating(s):

Multi-engine Land; Single-engine Land

Seat Occupied:

Left

Other Aircraft Rating(s):

None

Restraint Used:

5-point

Instrument Rating(s):

Airplane

Second Pilot Present:

Yes

Instructor Rating(s):

None

Toxicology Performed:

No

Medical Certification:

Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations

Last FAA Medical Exam:

03/02/2016

Occupational Pilot:

Yes

Last Flight Review or Equivalent:

06/30/2016

Flight Time:

2200 hours (Total, all aircraft), 1400 hours (Total, this make and model), 1700 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 125 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 40 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 2 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

 

 

Co-Pilot Information

Certificate:

Airline Transport; Foreign

Age:

48, Male

Airplane Rating(s):

Multi-engine Land

Seat Occupied:

Right

Other Aircraft Rating(s):

None

Restraint Used:

4-point

Instrument Rating(s):

Airplane

Second Pilot Present:

Yes

Instructor Rating(s):

None

Toxicology Performed:

No

Medical Certification:

Class 1 Without Waivers/Limitations

Last FAA Medical Exam:

07/07/2016

Occupational Pilot:

Yes

Last Flight Review or Equivalent:

03/31/2016

Flight Time:

6800 hours (Total, all aircraft), 25 hours (Total, this make and model), 6600 hours (Pilot In Command, all aircraft), 90 hours (Last 90 days, all aircraft), 32 hours (Last 30 days, all aircraft), 4 hours (Last 24 hours, all aircraft)

 

 

Aircraft and Owner/Operator Information

Aircraft Make:

LEARJET

Registration:

YV1738

Model/Series:

25 D

Aircraft Category:

Airplane

Year of Manufacture:

1983

Amateur Built:

No

Airworthiness Certificate:

Transport

Serial Number:

363

Landing Gear Type:

Retractable - Tricycle

Seats:

10

Date/Type of Last Inspection:

09/06/2016, Continuous Airworthiness

Certified Max Gross Wt.:

15000 lbs

Time Since Last Inspection:

 

Engines:

2 Turbo Jet

Airframe Total Time:

5330 Hours as of last inspection

Engine Manufacturer:

General Electric

ELT:

Installed, not activated

Engine Model/Series:

CJ-610-8A

Registered Owner:

WMG Techno-Logistic C.A.

Rated Power:

2950 lbs

Operator:

WMG Techno-Logistic C.A.

Operating Certificate(s) Held:

None

 

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Conditions at Accident Site:

Instrument Conditions

Condition of Light:

Day

Observation Facility, Elevation:

TJIG, 10 ft msl

Distance from Accident Site:

 

Observation Time:

1820 AST

Direction from Accident Site:

 

Lowest Cloud Condition:

 

Visibility

2 Miles

Lowest Ceiling:

Overcast / 2000 ft agl

Visibility (RVR):

 

Wind Speed/Gusts:

8 knots /

Turbulence Type Forecast/Actual:

/ None

Wind Direction:

350°

Turbulence Severity Forecast/Actual:

/ N/A

Altimeter Setting:

29.94 inches Hg

Temperature/Dew Point:

25°C / 24°C

Precipitation and Obscuration:

Moderate - Thunderstorms - No Precipitation

Departure Point:

Punta Cana, FN (MDPC)

Type of Flight Plan Filed:

IFR

Destination:

San Juan, PR (TJIG)

Type of Clearance:

IFR

Departure Time:

1750 AST

Type of Airspace:

Class C

 

Airport Information

Airport:

Fernando Dominicci Airport (TJIG)

Runway Surface Type:

Asphalt

Airport Elevation:

10 ft

Runway Surface Condition:

Standing Water; Wet

Runway Used:

09

IFR Approach:

Global Positioning System; RNAV

Runway Length/Width:

5539 ft / 100 ft

VFR Approach/Landing:

None

 

Wreckage and Impact Information

Crew Injuries:

2 None

Aircraft Damage:

Substantial

Passenger Injuries:

1 None

Aircraft Fire:

None

Ground Injuries:

N/A

Aircraft Explosion:

None

Total Injuries:

3 None

Latitude, Longitude:

18.457500, -66.096111 (est)

 


 


Administrative Information

Investigator In Charge (IIC):

Ralph E Hicks

Report Date:

03/18/2019

Additional Participating Persons:

Rafael C Gonzalez; FAA/FSDO; San Juan, PR

Publish Date:

03/18/2019

Note:

The NTSB did not travel to the scene of this accident.

Investigation Docket:

http://dms.ntsb.gov/pubdms/search/dockList.cfm?mKey=94070